Scientists have found that dozens of genes similar across different organism are unique to humans, and this could hold the key to the evolution of species. Researchers from the University of Toronto, Canada, have found out that these genes codes are transcription factors (TFs) and are controlling the gene activity. The study was published in the Nature Genetics Journal.
The TFs recognize snippets from the DNA code that is named Motifs. After that, the Motifs are used as landing sites for binding the DNA, and the genes are turned off or on. In a previous study, scientists have suggested that TFs are similar across different organism, and they are identical binding Motifs in humans and fruit.
Genes That Might Hold the Key of Human Evolution Found By Scientists
According to the new study, Professor Timothy Hughes is saying that this is not the case now. With the help of an original computational method, the scientists have made a more accurate prediction in each TF in different species. For example, the chimps and humans which have 99% identical genomes, the TFs have diverse Motifs between them. This could affect the expression of a lot of different genes.
Lambert is also saying that the little differences could be the cause of the differences between humans and chimps. The new software was developed especially for the structural similarities between the TFs from DNA binding. The idea is that if two TFs that come from different species have a similar composition of amino-acids, they are building some blocks of proteins, and it is probably binding similar motifs.
Finally, the role of the TFs remains open for further question, but a thing is clear. The organisms that have more divers TFs have more cell types, and the cells are coming together to create more complicated blocks. Also, the professor thinks that the TFs could be the ones responsible for the unique features of human anatomy and physiology.