Yeast is the key component in a light, fluffy pizza dough. Italian researchers have found a technique to manufacture pizza dough without the need for yeast, which eats sugar and converts it into carbon dioxide. In order to compare yeasted versus yeast-free dough, the study team, led by Ernesto Di Maio, employed basic materials and techniques such as tap water, iodized salt, and flour. A time-lapse photography setup was utilized to examine how the rise process influenced the final composition of either the yeasted dough and also the yeast-free dough.
The yeasted dough became more elastic and increased in area by about 20% over time, whereas the other dough remained same and slightly reduced in size.
The lack of yeast was compensated for by the researchers’ prior knowledge. Polyurethane, a common ingredient in paints, varnishes, adhesives, and foams, has been the subject of Di Maio’s research on how bubbles arise in polymers. Curing and foaming are two processes that both bread and polyurethane go through concurrently, thus he was aware of this.
Autoclaves are enclosed industrial devices that are often used for sterilization of things by eliminating microorganisms including bacteria, viruses, fungus, and spores. Autoclaves allow scientists to experiment with pressure and temperature levels in order to get the results they are looking for. A blowing ingredient, an initially liquid chemical that assists in the foam process, is also required for foaming polyurethane.
A yeast-free pizza dough the size of a cent was put in a heated autoclave by the scientists. Over the next five minutes, they gradually increased and decreased the pressure, disintegrating gas into the dough as they went. The dough began to bubble as the autoclave was gently depressurized.
According to the researchers, the resulting dough had a consistency comparable to that of a regular yeast-based dough.
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